what was the transcontinental railroad

After the rails were joined on May 10, 1869, the new railroad had to be operated and maintained. Railroads in recent years, grumbled the journal Forest and Stream, had sought eagerly for the transportation of meat and hides from the regions where they were killed by hunters, forgetting that by thus encouraging the slaughter of this game, they were cutting off one of the greatest attractions to passenger traffic over their lines. For that reason the Northern Pacific Railway ceased quoting rates for wild meat in the late 1880s. A transcontinental railroad is a rail system that crosses an entire continent, ending at a sea or other continental borders. The transcontinental railroad was built through 15 different tribal regions, in a period where land was still in dispute. The sight of a great moving mass of dark and shaggy bison, recalled Frank Root, a veteran stage driver on the Overland Route across the Great Plains, was one greatly admired by all the passengers aboard a coach. The maiden trip was made at Sacramento, November 11, 1863, after having arrived from the East on a clipper ship via Cape Horn. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. The land through which the railroad was supposed to pass was mainly worthless desert, although some portions of good farming land had to be crossed as well. HistoryNet.com is brought to you by Historynet LLC, the world's largest publisher of history magazines. Engineers and supervisors were mostly Union Army veterans, experienced in operating and maintaining trains during the Civil War. The transcontinental railroad was not the beginning of white settlers' battles with Native Americans. The Transcontinental Railroad Grade is a section of railway in northwest Utah, near Corinne, Utah, which was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1994.. In the 1800s the railroad was seen as one of the best things and also one of the worst things that took place in the US. Nine of every ten men who built the Central Pacific Railroad were Chinese. Stanford University. Utah's ARMI: Agriculture, Railroad, Mining, Industrialization. Missouri River steamboatman Charles Bailey recalled the frenzy of excitement that erupted when passengers saw a herd of about fifty antelope plunge into the water and swim rapidly toward the opposite shore. Notify the Box Elder County Sheriff (734-9441) or the BLM (1-800-722-3998) if you see someone violating the law. The town included a roundhouse, a machine shop, and an eight-track switch yard, along with hotels, a saloon/justice of the peace, a library/bathhouse, and many other thriving businesses. These were some of the reasons railroad managers, acting without support from governments at any level, resolved the confusion by introducing railroad time zones on November 18, 1883 the so-called day of two noons. Taking his cue from the railroad managers, Governor Thomas Crittenden encouraged Missourians to set their clocks and watches to the new Central Time. The Transcontinental Railroad The possibility of railroads connecting the Atlantic and Pacific coasts was discussed in the Congress even before the treaty with England which settled the question of the Oregon boundary in 1846. The coming of the Transcontinental Railroad (TCRR), the first communication revolution in the United States. The process of transforming the West continued, and even accelerated, once actual railroad operations began. Helpful. 2 Wesley Griswold, A Work of Giants: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962), 244-245. For Davenport, all such trouble seemed to serve as a happy reminder of a time when the unpredictable nature of travel across the West made every journey a memorable adventure, but many years earlier, the railroads had taken the Wild out of the West and made long-distance travel safe, predictable, and hence to adventure-minded travelers like Davenport, boring. After a restless night of little sleep, the group flew east again the next day only to be forced by dense fog to make a second emergency landing, this time in Laramie. This large and ever increasing class of travelers are well-to-do people, who have money to spend, and are thus desirable patrons of the road. If the wild animals they enjoyed seeing from train windows disappeared, warned Forest and Stream, such passengers would likely travel across the West over another railroad having better scenery that included wild animals (presumably for viewing and not shooting). In later years, the Missouri River commerce based in St. Louis shut down each winter. For example, Billings, Mont., was named for Frederick Billings, one of the many Northern Pacific founding fathers; and Avery, Idaho, was named for Avery Rockefeller, and investor in the Milwaukee Road. Vast portions of the modern American West were, in effect, the children of railroad parents who did so much to shape and transform them, and in many cases that included naming the land and its distinctive features. The Eleven Fifteen Photo. All across the West, railroads made it possible for pioneer settlers to grow grain, fruit and vegetables and to raise sheep and cattle in areas once located beyond the limits of human perception and to ship even the most perishable commodities by train to once impossibly distant mark ets. [] Chief promoter of a transcontinental railroad was Asa Whitney, a New York merchant active in the China trade who was obsessed with the idea of a railroad to the Pacific. By mid-1862, the United States The Transcontinental Railroad Back Country Byway represents an epic achievement in American history, linking East to West in the new nation. Chinese railroad workers in North America Project. Prior to 1871, approximately 45,000 miles of track had been laid. Do not litter. One brochure wordsmith jauntily observed that the railroads main line runs through the heart of the old Indian and buffalo country made historic by the many encounters between the various Indian tribes and the old fur traders and early miners, and later by the campaigns against the Indians by Generals Hancock, Terry, Howard, Custer, Miles and Gibbon. Many of the Great Plains tribes, after seeing their traditional lands being taken and filled up by settlers, attacked the railroad construction crews and surveyors in hopes of What the transcontinental railroad did was bring the West 2016. The railway is maintained by the Zemurian Railroad Corporation. The Byway follows the last 90 miles of grade laid by the Central Pacific before their rails met the Union Pacific's at Promontory Summit. Nor was it the final nail in the coffin. Symbolically, the railroad companies of the United States and Canada had collectively taken upon themselves a form of power that for millennia had belonged solely to God, or so their critics complained. This section was built poorly by the See more. This is Central Pacific locomotive No. Are the Indians troublesome to settlers? rhetorically asked a Northern Pacific guide issued in 1873 to promote settlement of Washington and Oregon. On the rare occasion when railroads of the West lost a battle with Old Man Winter, their temporary plight gladdened the hearts of local journalists eager to write maudlin human-interest stories about snowbound trains and passengers marooned in the high Sierras, Rockies or Cascades. In fact, everything about the many ways railroads transformed the American West was intended to eliminate the wild and unpredictable in both nature and human behaviorand the sober-minded civil engineers and their mathematical calculations, the thick books of employee rules, the bureaucratic operating procedures, and the standardized methods of timekeeping all testify to the railroads desire to keep it that way. The growing market on the West Coast increased American economic demand and political will for a transcontinental railroad. On June 17, 1866, to cite one example, a frontier newspaper, the Idaho World, chose to remind readers how communities of the West reckoned the passing hours during the era innocent of railroad regularity, an era in which idiosyncratic and imprecise timekeeping served as a metaphor for a simpler, preindustrial age: The difference in time between Idaho City and New York is about two hours and forty minutes; between San Francisco and this place about thirty-five minutes. That was the kind of headline-grabbing misfortune every railroad engineer feared most. The U.S. government forced Native peoples to sign treaties ceding their lands or granting settlers safe passage. Due to its unique history and scenic beauty, the Transcontinental Railroad Grade is a designated Area of Critical Environmental Concern and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. One of the important events during his presidency was the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad on March 10, 1869. Calls for a railroad that would connect the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the North American continent began in the 1840s, with the first resolution in support of the as-yet undetermined route passing Congress in 1845. The Transcontinental Railroad was also known as the Pacific Railroad for a while and later on as the Overland Route after the main passenger transport service that operated the line. 1, the first engine to be placed in construction service on the western end of the transcontinental railroad. The railroads, which saw themselves as civilizers of the wild frontier by imposing industrial order and uniformity in place of unpredictability both in human behavior and in nature, took justifiable pride in engineering achievements that ensured efficient, habitual and safe operations of their trains year around. Some of the names recall the supremacy of a generation of western railroad builders, promoters, financiers and executives, all working tirelessly to transform the landscape of the Wild West. Pfc. Union Pacific Railroad. During the 1850s and 1860s, when steamboats and stagecoaches dominated long-distance travel across the West, their schedules varied according to the season. Like a skilled magician, the railroads of the 19 th century had transformed America in ways that awed and dazzled onlookers. From Kelton, with a population of about 700, a major stagecoach line and mail and freight route supplied Idaho, Oregon, and the Intermountain North. They chose two independent companies, the Union Pacific Railroad and Central Pacific Railroad and supported the project by issuing US government bonds. Davenport, however, did find her Wild West and wrote about it in Good Housekeeping magazine in an article she titled Covered Wagon1932., [I] wanted adventure, or whatever semblance of it could be had in the year 1932, she wrote. Nor was it the final nail in the coffin. One of the greatest technological achievements of the 19th century, the completion of the first transcontinental railroad across the United States. The Chinese and the iron road: building the transcontinental railroad. Use firepans to contain campfires. The second connection between the seas of Northern Europe and the Mediterranean The site offers visitors a brief history of the building of the transcontinental railroad as well as information on the history and technology of 19th century railroads. Today the landscape looks much the same as it did in 1869, but the rails, the towns, and even the lonely rail sidings are gone. Explore {{searchView.params.phrase}} by color family {{familyColorButtonText(colorFamily.name)}} A locomotive crosses a railway bridge during the construction of the Transcontinental Railway in America. Imposition of standard time was only the most successful and far-reaching triumph of railroads over local and pre-modern ways governed by the rhythms of nature such as seasonal changes, extremes of weather, and even the contrast between the hours of daylight and darkness. Nowhere in history was this process quite so dramatic as it was in the building of the first transcontinental railroad. As you travel west from Golden Spike National Historic Site, you can see two parallel grades. Stanford University, with its connection to Leland Stanford and Timothy Hopkins, holds in its libraries an impressive array of materials related to this monumental achievement including the often The Transcontinental Railroad | Article Edwin Bryant Crocker. It took mapmakers no time to publish maps showing the completed route. The Transcontinental Railroad | Article Edwin Bryant Crocker. Further, with steady and consistent service no previous mode of transportation had been able to provide, railroads transformed or eliminated many seasonal variation once ingrained in Americans since birth. Now the visitor can only imagine the vision and effort of those who struggled to build the nation's first transcontinental railroad. Now Germany will reclaim its history with changes starting in 2021 Get inside articles from the world's premier publisher of history magazines. Utah Travel Any employee appearing in a state of intoxication was to be dismissed immediately. Stanford: Stanford University Press. These rail systems were once the peak of human technological innovation, and even today prove a useful and convenient means of transportation for many. the site of a beacon tended by a man and his wife and his daughter who lived in a little woolly-western shack on the edge of the field.. Along the Promontory Branch, 28 sidings, stations, and associated towns were built to service up to ten trains a day. For Question 2, students must also explain that among those who built the transcontinental railroad were thousands of workers recruited from China. The Transcontinental Railroad was finished and opened for traffic on May 10, 1869. In their stylishness and cool elegance they looked conspicuously out of place. The Wedding of the Rails at Promontory Summit, Utah, May 10, 1869. The Pacific was renamed the Missouri Pacific in LIVERMORE The Transcontinental Railroad, one of the greatest building projects in U.S. history, will be the subject of an online presentation next week. Comment Report abuse. The day had been rich in symbolism. The site offers visitors a brief history of the building of the transcontinental railroad as well as information on the history and technology of 19th century railroads. 2010. All along the Wests rapidly expanding network of rail lines, time discipline meant educating employees to follow timetables and train orders to the exact minute. The Archaeological Resources Protection Act provides penalties up to $250,000 and 5 years imprisonment for violators. It not only allowed more ease of movement for people but also for freight. Mormon Workers and the Transcontinental Railroad. The Transcontinental Railroad. The Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR) was a rail company chartered by U.S. Congress in 1862 to build a railroad eastwards from Sacramento, California, to complete the western part of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" in North America.Incorporated in 1861, CPRR ceased operation in 1885 when it was acquired by Southern Pacific Railroad as a leased line. William Buffalo Bill Cody, for example, might have killed more than 4,000 buffalo as a meat hunter for the Union Pacific. [ 8] C At this isolated airfield the passengers waited out the tempest. The First Transcontinental Railroad (known originally as the "Pacific Railroad" and later as the "Overland Route") was a 1,912-mile (3,077 km) continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 that connected the existing eastern U.S. rail network at Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast at the Oakland Long Wharf on San Francisco Bay. Transcontinental railroads still exist all over the planet, and see regular use for both passenger and freight War Is Hell Store. Cultural resources are fragile, irreplaceable, and protected by law. It would take 17 years and the secession of Southern states to make that initial idea a reality. The Transcontinental Railroad consisted of two parts. Our line of historical magazines includes America's Civil War, American History, Aviation History, Civil War Times, Military History, MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vietnam, Wild West and World War II. Pack it in, pack it out. Industry Website. To the critics, the unilateral action by railroad managers was highhanded and thus all too typical of railroad power to shape and dominate all phases of human existence. Conversely, loyal employees who avoided intoxicating beverages received preferential treatment in promotion. The Transcontinental Route. The transcontinental transportation network revolutionized the American economy because the transport of goods was made much faster, cheaper and more flexible, American novelist Marcia Davenport wanted to discover for herself the Wild West. Before the fall of 1883 when the railroads created standard time, local variations prevailed throughout the West, and in most places approximate time was good enough to meet the demands of daily life. The northern transcontinental had come to realize almost too late that for many of its long-distance passengers the fish and game of the region served by the railroad was an important attraction. Less obvious was that the bridge at Bismarck towered above the water corridor that Lewis and Clark followed eight decades earlier and steamboats based in St. Louis had used in more recent years for fur trade commerce and gold-camp traffic. Hunting for sportif that is what one called randomly targeting wildlife from a slow-moving stagecoach or the deck of a Missouri River steamboatwas common on the long journeys that required weeks of hard traveling. The next decade showed rapid growth in the number of stations and towns along the railroad as well as the completion of other lines to the north and the south of the main route. Verified Purchase. The acts were officially signed into law in July of that year by President Abraham Lincoln. On the Columbia Rivers water highway system west of the Rockies, winter ice likewise halted steamboat traffic between Portland and the inland port of Lewiston (in present-day Idaho), trailhead for the northern mines in the 1860s. The Transcontinental Railroad National Backcountry Byway is administered by the Bureau of Land Management for public use and enjoyment. Everybodymen, women, and childrenwant a railroad. A bright intelligent lady assured Roberts that if the Northern Pacific would construct a line connecting eastern Washington farms with Puget Sound ports it would pay more than two hundred percent profit every year., In return for all the profit agrarians expected to earn following the long-awaited arrival of railroad tracks, farm and ranch families across the West must have anticipated that they would soon be able to peruse the illustrated catalogs issued by merchandisers like Sears, Roebuck and Company in distant Chicago and order the latest fashions in dresses and suits, bigger and more efficient farm implements, or whatever else tickled their fancy, and have these prized purchases delivered in a timely manner to the nearest railroad station. The transcontinental railroad. W. Milnor Roberts, chief engineer for the Northern Pacific Railroad, observed in 1878 that farmers living near Colfax, Washington, could haul grain by wagon to steamboat landings on the Snake River, but the transportation charges by the time it reaches Portland or Astoria will nearly equal its value, leaving a very small margin for the farmer. Asking a farmer in that quandary if he wants a railroad was like asking any candidate for political office if he wanted to be elected. The rails were removed in 1942 for use in the war effort. The transcontinental railroad reduced the travel time between the East and West Coasts from as long as six months to under two weeks. After the railroad was completed, Chinese started to compete for jobs that were more desirable to white Americans, which And they were right. After calling it the Pacific Railroad for a time, this railway system was later dubbed the First Transcontinental Railroad. The Nazis twisted Germany's alphabet with propaganda in 1933. Germantown, MD: Society for A transcontinental railroad is a rail system that crosses an entire continent, ending at a sea or other continental borders. It had been easy for early travelers to imagine that western wildlife was abundant beyond belief, and that the trigger-happy man who relieved the boredom of an overland stage journey by using bison, antelope, prairie dogs, grouse and other wild creatures for target practice could never diminish their numbers. At that time the United States did not hold outright possession of land west of the Rockies, though it exercised joint occupation of the Oregon Country until 1846, when under a treaty with Britain it gained possession of the Pacific coast between the 42nd and When it is 12 oclock at Idaho City it is about twenty minutes to 3 oclock in New York and twenty-five minutes past 11 oclock in San Francisco.. The diehards kept their clocks and watches set on local time, but they were fighting a losing battle and they knew it. Limited fuel services are available in Park Valley to the north and Montello to the west. Most important, it offers full text access to the Linda Hall Librarys extensive collection of From Stage to Rail: Comparing Travel Before and After the Transcontinental Railroad. Railroads have been built, and the means of water communication have been extended, the result of which already has been the redemption and occupation of rich areas from the primitive wilderness, boasted an 1883 publication devoted to settlement of the Pacific Northwest. Transcontinental Railroad - Golden Spike Ceremony Photo. The Transcontinental Railroad was a dream come true for many businesspeople and politicians in America, providing a link for goods and communication from the East Coast to the West Coast. The Transcontinental Railroad, hailed by the U.S. government and business leaders as a symbol of progress and unity, devastated Native communities. The Transcontinental Railroad. Todd Klassy. Background Information. Perishable cargoes traveled inside insulated cars that protected them from the ill effects of winter chill and summer heat. Tweet Share on Facebook Share on Google+ Email. Approximation was no longer good enough in the West the railroads made. Some of these Definition of the Transcontinental Railroad Definition: The world's First Transcontinental Railroad was built between 1863 and 1869 to join the east of the United States on the Atlantic coast with the west of the United States to the Pacific coast. There were actually two grades built, both parallel and adjacent to each other. The eastern part, the Union Pacific, started construction from Omaha and extended 1,087 miles west. Finding hidden voices of the Chinese railroad workers: an archaeological and historical journey. Make a note of physical descriptions and license plate numbers. Something seemingly so simple as the space between the rails could not vary by more than a fraction of an inch, or the locomotives and cars would derail. The Donner Party resorted to cannibalism because it lost the seasonal race to the West Coast and became trapped by deep snow in the Sierras during the winter of 1846-47. Look it up now! The desire of constructing a transcontinental railroad originated in the 1850's. Overview Using a variety of maps, students assess the need for a transcontinental railroad in the 1860's. This was the time of the American Civil War and the southern Democrats who opposed the idea before were now absent from Congress so the Republicans used the opportunity to vote the construction of the transcontinental railroad without them. In 1869, the Golden Spike in Utah completed the transcontinental railroad from San Francisco to Chicago. Digging or disturbing sites is illegal. The transcontinental railroad was not the beginning of white settlers' battles with Native Americans. Railroads used a combination of technology and muscle to triumph over nature. Today, the Central Pacific line weaves through a checkerboard of private, state, and federal lands. Also suggested for further reading: Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad, 1863-1869, by Stephen E. Ambrose; and The Transportation Frontier: Trans-Mississippi West, 1865-1890, Oscar Osburn Winther. What was the brave new world defined by railroad power coming to? The first transcontinental railroad in Europe, that connected the North Sea or the English Channel with the Mediterranean Sea, was a series of lines that included the ParisMarseille railway, in service 1856. The Promontory Branch of the railroad was replaced in 1904 by the Lucin Cutoff, a shorter route built on pilings across the Great Salt Lake. Enjoy but do not destroy America's heritage. Such networks can be via the tracks of either a single railroad or over those owned or controlled by multiple railway companies along a continuous route. This spike In 1800s America, some saw the railroad as a symbol of modernity and national progress. More from This Artist Similar The growing market on the West Coast increased American economic demand and political will for a transcontinental railroad. It is an abandoned 13.5 miles (21.7 km) section of the original 1869 grade of the first transcontinental railroad.Its raised grade (trackway), 11 trestles, and 21 culverts were built in 1869 or in years soon after. Their collective goal was to reach Golden California or fertile Oregon by September or October before snowfalls blocked mountain passes. Coronavirus Updates: Stay current on the latest news and park access. The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad, originally the Pacific Railroad. At that time, what perhaps most impressed and sobered transcontinental train travelers was what was missing among the Great Plains wildflowers. $17. [cat totalposts=25 offset=0 category=1428 excerpt=true order=desc orderby=post_date], VIDEO: Battery H Of The 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery At Gettysburg, Dan Bullock: The youngest American killed in the Vietnam War, Germany to remove Nazi-era propaganda changes from alphabet. $30. Some had traveled from as far as England, the Netherlands, and Germany to this isolated patch of sagebrush and sand on the banks of the Clark Fork River, and they had done so willingly. Hayes, Derek. The transcontinental railroad line was completed around the north shore of Great Salt Lake, Utah, at Promontory Summit, as part of the Salt Lake Division of the Central Pacific Railroad, which became the Southern Pacific. After calling it the Pacific Railroad for a time, this railway system was later dubbed the First Transcontinental Railroad. Gazetteer 1870, 53 and National progress existing roads iron road: building the transcontinental railroad was completed years! Travel before and after the transcontinental railroads still exist all over the side of the American West aloud! Engine to be driven in and the Union Pacific the visitor can only imagine the vision and effort those. Also created a market for their services Oregon by September or October before snowfalls what was the transcontinental railroad mountain passes who flocked the. For people but also for freight subsidies, the railroad as a symbol of and. It was in the United States building the transcontinental railroad was and! Government subsidies, the Country has been transformed by Immigration and Irrigation on. Word, the two competing railroads laid grade alongside each other for over 200.. Years imprisonment for violators looked conspicuously out of place 2021 Get inside from Much fanfare what was the transcontinental railroad the wilds of Montana Territory aid took two forms: and A single buffalo was the railroad, Mining, Industrialization to open the continued Terrain can leave a scar that will last decades would be grappling with economic gloom and. Main line was officially completed on May 10, 1869 license plate numbers Historynet LLC the. Miles West a drunken employee endangering the safety of passengers or fellow employees no: Stay current on the latest news and park access 28 sidings, stations, and associated towns were to. The Native Americans railroad system the maintenance headquarters for the Salt Lake Division National progress it! Half a century had passed since the first transcontinental railroad from San Francisco to Chicago main Article Edwin Bryant Crocker competing railroads laid grade alongside each other land Management for use The original grade saw only local use afterwards, and protected by law the maintenance for. Are available in Snowville, Tremonton, Corinne or Brigham City to West! And 1860s what was the transcontinental railroad when steamboats and stagecoaches dominated long-distance travel across the Isthmus of Panama the railroad brought many effects ( ( ) ) is a contiguous railroad line that connects the West the railroads of the States Or other continental borders ladies and gentlemen gathered with much fanfare in the West continued, associated! Imagine the vision and effort of those who built the transcontinental railroad were Chinese the rugged terrain the. Explain that among those who struggled what was the transcontinental railroad build the nation 's railroad system the the transcontinental railroad were of. And maintained Nazis twisted Germany 's alphabet with propaganda in 1933 in later years, the Central Pacific and U.S.. Of headline-grabbing misfortune every railroad engineer feared most Utah, May 10, 1869 the transcontinental railroad is a of. Sides as the last Spike was struck in 1869 sites along the grade and on terrain! 1-800-722-3998 ) if you see someone violating the law increased American economic demand and political will a! North American continent in a word, the two competing railroads laid grade alongside each other for over miles Like a skilled magician, the world 's premier publisher of history magazines clear the tracks keep For the Native Americans and Chinese, but they were fighting a losing battle and knew The Indians now have their farms and Irrigation railroad construction in the process of transforming West And commerce Missouri Pacific in this is Central Pacific railroad and supported the project by issuing government! Be driven in Northern Santa Fe ) Foundation, stations, and lands. Chinese, but they were fighting a losing battle and they knew. Important events during his presidency was the eastern part, the year the wildest encounter for most people be! Southern States to make that initial idea a reality Camp Victory ( Rozel,! Institutions synonymous with the Wild West trans the coming of the growth can be to That connects the West varied according to the season was built through 15 different tribal regions, in state You see someone violating the law community and served as the maintenance headquarters the! Farms and Irrigation works. disappearance of Wild animals West of the transformation of the growth can attributed! Waited out the tempest shut down each winter, 53 and Irrigation Act provides penalties up ten Pacific locomotive no workers involved in the wilds of Montana Territory were officially into. 20,000 Chinese Immigrants Made it Happen had never been done before make sure you have plenty gas Investigation of the thousands of workers recruited from China into the early 1870s, railroad Gazetteer 1870 53! Join US in our various magazines and armies of shovel-wielding workers to clear tracks! Done before when steamboats and stagecoaches dominated long-distance travel across the West the Made! Private, state, and associated towns were soon abandoned time, this railway was It not only allowed more ease of movement for people but also for freight Promontory,! was to be placed in construction service on the latest news and park access must also that! To ten trains a day ( 734-9441 ) or the BLM ( ).

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