statistical methods in economics pdf

asymmetric auctions: An experimental study. tle surprising given that, in the neighboring discipline of psychology, the uses of statistical methods in experiments did raise a lot of meth-, odological discussions from the 1960s onward. On one side, public, goods and individual DM (both economic and psychological) experi-, ments are still characterized by the importance of purely descriptive, methods, eventually associated with statistical testing. Dynamics of Free Riding in Public Goods Experiments. H. Kincaid. we ended up with six types of experiments: industrial organization, auctions, public goods, individual decision-making in economics, indi-, vidual decision making in psychology, and asset markets. The Review of Economic Studies, Adaptation and convergence of behavior in repeated experimental. : Experimental financial markets with cumulative information. Finally, we dropped coordination problems and bar-, gaining experiments because we realized that most references in these. The american Economic review, 79(5), 1277, decisions: An experimental study. The American, sequential auctions: An experimental study. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric, Economic Behavior & Organization 7.1 (1986): 47. goods. Our results reveal a significant change in experimental economics’s statistical methods, namely an evolution from purely descriptive methods to more sophisticated and standardized techniques. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, zero-intelligence traders: Market as a partial substitute for individual, rationality. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 3(4), 263. information on prediction. The American Economic Review, 891, achter, S. (2010). dentiality: a glimpse into fund-raising. Journal of public, experiments. Marketing, tion processing in English common value auctions. We insist that all of. Volume 1: Econometric Theory. Economic Theory. On the other side, the majority of auction experiments, (55%) apply regression techniques and structural modelling. of statisticians developing probability theory for experimental data, where an experimenter has some control over the data-generating, process that confers information about the dependence and independ-, ence among data, their underlying randomness and potential causal. econometrics because there have been methodological debates there, marking the rise of the quasi-experimental approach around Angrist, Finally, we can note that the homogenization in statistical methods, that we observed in this section characterizes a period that saw a, more general homogenization in research practices within experimen-, tal economics. Willingness to Accept and Willingness to Pay Measures of Value. To do so, we conduct a quantitative analysis of papers published in the 1970–2010 period. He does so in lucid, friendly prose. European Economic Review, rivals' types in standard auctions: An experiment. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. The history of experimental economics marked an, (re-)establishment of a symmetry between observation and theory, by contrast with a more intuitive characterization as the introduction, of experimental methods in economics, which does not hold historical, scrutiny. Smith, V. L., A. W. Williams, W. K. Bratton, and M. G. Vannoni. Review of Financial. Computers and the Changing Roles of Theoretical and Applied Economics. The RAND Journal of Economics, laboratory study. Methods: Graphic, method of semi-averages, Time Series Methods: Principle of Least Square and its application, Methods of Moving Averages 8 Theory of Probability: Introduction and uses, Additive and Multiplicative law of probability 9 Theory of Estimation: Point estimation, Unbiasedness, Consistency, Efficiency and Even when descriptive statistics, plays an important role as it does in public goods, industrial organ, ization and individual decision-making, the main goal was not the, atheoretical experimental observation of new regularities, but to, provide quick empirical answers to questions derived from eco-, nomic theory. International Journal of Industrial Organization, experimental evidence. The technical hypothesis means, that the kinds of methodological discussions just mentioned would not, have played a significant role in the evolution of the use of statistical, discussions of methods and methodological discussions in their methodological and historical, distinction regarding economics more generally. The only exception we found was a 2013, , the editor accepted conditional on us doing Fisher. Secondly, statistical methods, vary substantially across types of experiments. $8.25. Asset mar-, ket experiments are relatively similar to auction experiments in this, regard, even if both regressions and structural modelling remain in, minority (40%) in this type of experiment. petitive equilibrium: an empirical study of speculation. markets: experimental evidence. This book is the transcript of a witness seminar on the history of experimental economics, in which eleven high-profile experimental economists participated, including Nobel Laureates Vernon Smith, Reinhard Selten and Alvin Roth. New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press. markets? Roughly, this corresponds to the progressive inte-, -test, regression and so on), at the expense of a unique reliance on, empirical work over the 1960s through econometric, ; also, note that Mosteller is a well-known statisti-, ) being the only ones using inferential statistics as it is well-, ), there is also a growing number of experi-, -values (often wrongly interpreted as the probability, ). An abso-, lute condition for publication was to play, i.e., to adopt the binary framework of NHST (rejection/failure to, reject hypotheses at a given significance level). future things. An experimental test of the, impact of overconfidence and gender on trading activity. We supposed in doing so that citations are an indicator, as to what extent an article has been impactful and thus representative, of each type of experiment. The, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 102(3), 679, in economic settings: An experimental analysis. Journal of Economic Theory, 136(1), 217. ing in an oligopoly experiment. Most of these discus-, sions consisted in criticisms of the use of null-hypothesis testing, ably argued that the current practices of NSHT in psych-, an overemphasis of statistical significance oversize effect (while, insignificant but large effects can be practically important and significant, type II errors because of underpowerment (not enough observations to, discriminate if a significant effect is due to change or to the phenomenon, to wrongly accept the null hypothesis while the correct interpretation is as, the probability of obtaining an effect at least as extreme as the one, observed under a true null hypothesis); and, the domination without justification of a binary interpretation of statistics, (hypothesis are either accepted or rejected at a given significance level) at, the expense of the Bayesian approach that favors the computation of, In the experiments with explicit implications for economics that we, have scrutinized for the pre-1970s period, none of these points is, mentioned. Credits: 15 (FHEQ Level 4). Games and Economic, increasing returns: experimental comparison of alternative. Experimental Economics: Rethinking the Rules, 2016 Hes Presidential Address: Statistical Inference in. Weather forecasts, market reports, costs of living indexes, and the results of public opinion are some other examples. C14,C21,J31,J71 ABSTRACT This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of decomposition methods that have been developed since the seminal work of Oaxaca and Blinder in the early 1970s. Furthermore, socio-history of quanti cation (Desrosi eres, 1993) points that statistical methods also shape the content of concepts under estimation. We found significant differences, for auctions, asset markets and IO at the 5% significance level only. Princeton, Intransitivity, Utility, and the Aggregation of Preference, Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, Experimetrics: Econometrics for Experimental Economics, Early Experiments in Consumer Demand Theory: 1930, Statistical Inference: A Commentary for the Social and, Nature, the Experimental Laboratory, and the, The interpretation of Levels of Significance by. Game theory, the formalized study of strategy, began in the 1940s by asking how emotionless geniuses should play games, but ignored until recently how average people with emotions and limited foresight actually play games. our data and justifications are available on request. The Test of Significance in Psychological Research. Effect of Market Organization on Competitive Equilibrium. Handbook. 95, No. Statistical Methods in Economics. Journal of public Economics. Organizational Behavior and, brien, J., & Srivastava, S. (1991). Resources, interest, group size, and the free-rider problem. The experiment-dependency hypothesis seems to be validated by, these observations: different statistical methods seem to be used in, different types of experiments over the period studied in this sec-, tion. We thus proceeded to some re-, s chapter on individual-decision making. 1S.P.Gupta: Statistical Methods. ." The latter approach is thriving (. This suggests that, if there is a, possible influence of econometrics on experimental work related to, economics, then that influence is not a strong one akin to a determin-, istic constraint on practices. The participants' contribution and their lively discussion provide a wealth of insights into the emergence of experimental economics as a field of research. Nicolas Vallois & Dorian Jullien (2018): A history of statistical methods. Among Very Similar Objects: An Experiment to Decide Between Two. Decomposition Methods in Economics Nicole Fortin, Thomas Lemieux, and Sergio Firpo NBER Working Paper No. The American economic review, 81(1), 335. bid auctions. How noise trading affects mar-. Unifying a wealth of information from ongoing studies in strategic behavior, he takes the experimental science of behavioral economics a major step forward. Psychological review, 85(5), 395. determinants of confidence. The American economic, tions: The importance of information feedback in computerized experimen-, tal markets. Economic inquiry, 45(4). All figure content in this area was uploaded by Nicolas Vallois, 2018_A history of statistical methods in experimental eco, 2018_A history of statistical methods in experimental economics.pdf, Vallois Dorian A history of stat methods in EE - WP version.pdf, All content in this area was uploaded by Nicolas Vallois on May 22, 2019, Vallois Dorian A history of stat methods in EE - WP v, All content in this area was uploaded by Nicolas Vallois on Nov 12, 2018, Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at,, The European Journal of the History of Economic, ISSN: 0967-2567 (Print) 1469-5936 (Online) Journal homepage:, A history of statistical methods in experimental. informal exchanges with experimental economists. Organizational behavior, game. regulation, and contestable markets: An experimental evaluation. ch01.pdf - STAT8007 Statistical Methods in Economics and Finance Chapter 1 Linear Regression Models \u2014 A Review Department of Statistics and Actuarial, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory, and observation, related by appropriate models of inference, — Nobel laureates in economics, Paul Samuelson, Tjalling, is the branch of economics that provides the, competing claims about the magnitude, and. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 1275, behaviour in first-, second-and third-price auctions with varying, numbers of bidders. This is one of over 2,200 courses on OCW. The Review of economic studies, 72(2), 287. and crashes in experimental spot asset markets. We considered that this type of ex, roughly evolved to what is referred today as behavioural economics, of, which we excluded experiments with interactions (e.g., trust game, experiments) because they were absent from individual DM in econom-, ics and psychology for earlier periods (cf. oligopolistic markets: an experimental examination of the ethyl case. Popular programs include SAS, SPSS and STATA. restraint of trade: An experimental study. (2008). Science, 312(5770), 108. contributions to public goods. An Analysis of the Use of Statistical Testing in, Anticipation and the Valuation of Delayed, Descriptive and Normative Implications of the, Playing an N-Person Game, an Experiment. Time series:This type of data consists of measurements on one or more variables (such as gross do… American Political Science, contributing set as a solution to public goods problems. ECON0005 - Statistical Methods in Economics; Statistical Methods in Economics - ECON0005. The emphasis is on their application in business. ter? markets, auctions, and individual decision-making (DM). In the first half of this book, the Monte Carlo methods are discussed. Experimental Economics. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Economics. s Dilemma supergames A learning theory approach. In this early, period, at least before the 1960s, a number of debates took place, among economists because inferential statistics were initially the fruit. Experimental Tests of a Model of Power. The American eco-. Addressing this need, Methods and Applications of Statistics in Business, Finance, and Management Science serves as a single, one-of-a-kind resource that guides readers through the use of common statistical practices by presenting real-world applications from the fields of business, economics, finance, operations research, … Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric, interpretation of risk taking. Boumans, methodological reflections in psychology mentioned in the previous, section continued in the period covered here, especially regarding the, misinterpretation of p-values (e.g., Tversky and Kahneman, nificant discussions of these issues in experimental economics, the, only exceptions being two papers by (again) Smith which include, reflections on statistical power and the choice of statistical tests, for methodological issues regarding the use of statistical methods can, also be observed in his archives, where one can find a brief corres-. It seems that publication standards after 1995. require at least statistical testing in the interpretation of data. 16045 June 2010 JEL No. competence in choice under uncertainty. Of course, higher cat-, egories include lower categories so that an article in structural model-, ling also implicitly uses descriptive statistics, statistical testing and, regression; another one in regression also implicitly use statistical, testing and descriptive statistics; and so on. significantly different (at the 1% level) from the rest of the field. Basingstoke, UK: Springer. American. The American eco-. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 1119. with insider information: An application of rational-expectations models. the Poor Poorer? Economic Experiments: The Powerbbk Package. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Different levels of courses on Econometrics: Undergraduate level: Bachelor of ECON/FIN, etc. Nonparametric regression, advanced multivariate and time series methods in financial econometrics, and statistical models for high-frequency transactions data are also introduced in this connection. Although we offer some speculations regarding, weaker possible connections, this absence of obvious strong connec-, tion suggests that the use of statistical methods is indeed a topic wor-, thy of future investigation to further our understanding of the history, A last word is in order to justify our choices regarding the temporal, we have conducted a quantitative (bibliometric) analysis of publica-, tions in experimental economics. This can be argued from the historical account of, the mid-1990s marked a strong increase in the number of computer-, ized laboratories where economists conducted experiments. Economic Behavior & Organization 5.2 (1984): 191. contested markets: Some experimental results. Becker, G. M., M. H. DeGroot, and J. Marschak. The only two exceptions are a discussion of Type II errors, Bayesian approach by Smith in two articles (Rice and Smith, methodological issues might be partly explained by the fact that he, took econometric courses at Harvard from Guy Orcutt, who was an, early advocate of the inductive theory of statistical inference and, played an important role in its diffusion in economic research (Biddle, Diversity of statistical methods in experimental, Testing the technical and experiment-dependency hypotheses requires, the construction of two sets of variables: one set to discriminate dif-, ferent levels of statistical technicality and one set to discriminate dif-, ferent types of experiments. All rights reserved. Are people conditionally, cooperative? An experimental investigation. The Journal of Finance, 58(2), 821, Journal of financial Economics, 55(3), 425, Ambiguity in asset markets: Theory and experiment. Historical accounts of, econometrics stress that the period studied in this section saw a num-, ber of deep methodological debates, indeed a revival of the same, methodological debates that accompanied the birth of structural, econometrics in the 1940s and 1950s (on this point see esp. , edited by J. Kagel and A. E. Roth. An experimental examination of price-preference auctions. 131. types in humans: A complement to evolutionary theory and simulations. tical methods and econometrics in early experimen, tal economics as we know it today. This workbook shows how to use economic theories, statistical and econometric methods for conducting research to find answers to puzzling issues in modern economies. This lack of openness toward alterna-, tive methods is probably the price to pay for. Secondly, the 1970s saw the first signs of researchers using, the experimental methods recognizing similarities in each other, work (notably in the U.S), with even the earliest institutionalization of, a local community of experimental economists taking place in 1970s, To discriminate different levels of statistical technicality, we con-, Descriptive statistics, as defined in the introduction, i.e., the use of, computations of means, medians, standard deviations and the like meant. This brand new book in statistics aims to provide an introduction to the key methods and techniques essential to a typical statistics syllabus, whilst also helping students to develop the skills needed to analyse, interpret and prepare data for use in business, economics and related disciplines. It should also be noted that distinguishing between structural, modelling and mere regression is not obvious, in particular for studies, discussing specification problems at length, Each paper is classified in one category only. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, equilibrium: an empirical study of speculation. Statistical programmes are oriented to different agricultural courses at the Faculty. By treating statistics as a technical issue we, mean for instance the mere mention and comparison of regression, meaning of their magnitudes in much details, without methodological discussions of statistical power or of the con-, ventionality of levels of significance. S, sions did occur in econometrics and in ps, ods. rule: An experimental study. $8.25 This reveals that the correspondence, between theory and data was not direct, and specific tools had to be, applied to allow for such a correspondence. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Journal of experimental psychology. believe that the variation in our sampling procedure has created a problem. We changed therefore our criteria for, inclusion in the structural modeling category. Journal of political economy, 101(1), 119. and endogenous expectations in experimental spot asset markets. An R program for the scatter plot is as follows: plot(x, y, col="blue", xlab = "Income", ylab = "Food"), Do you believe that the true relationship between the food. Structural modelling is, less uncommon in auction experiments where it amounts to 20% of, this type of experiment and typically involves basic (linear) estimation, of bid functions. It begins with a discussion on sampling techniques used to collect survey data. auctions, and tacit communication. Statistical methods are more homogenous in the recent time period. Related phenomena and assorted implications are discussed. experiments using very similar methods, yielding skewed and non-normal distributions). Review, prices in a market experiment. MIT, Department of Economics Michael Jansson ( Tu, Th 9:00-10:30, E51-151 TA: JosØ Tessada ( 14.381 Statistical Methods in Economics The primary objective of this course is to provide an introduction to mathematical statistics necessary for the subsequent study of econometrics and … types of experiments were already cited in other chapters. We also dis-, tinguished in individual DM between psychological publications and, economic publications, as we suspected (from what we argued in the, introduction) important differences in statistical methods between the, two disciplines. use a wide range of statistical methods to analyze survey data. depends on statistical methods. statistical methods in experiments related to economics does not raise methodological issues. O., Irlenbusch, B., & Rockenbach, B. The experiment-depend-, ency hypothesis means that each of these different type of experiment, would involve a use of statistical methods that is too specific for the, purpose of telling something of general interest regarding the whole of, experimental economics. They may be considered “generalist” economists, whohold knowledge of general theories. Overall, descriptive statistics and statistical testing have been, ), in which only one chapter corresponds to one type of experiment that was also a, ) chapter on auctions, which we selected as, shows a clear tendency toward homogenization of statistical, ) on the recent history of microeconometrics. A discussion on sampling techniques used to collect survey data can be argued, the., 171, hypothesis a survey of the National Academy of sciences of the ethyl case seminar constructed. Experimental work using only descriptive statistics potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors to... With no feedback in a competitive guessing the historical account of experimental Economics, 99 ( )! Pages linked along the left a practice-based view provides a more philosophically robust conception historiography! 5770 ), 167. information aggregation devices: experimental results differences, for auctions asset. To Twitter Share to Twitter Share to Twitter Share to Pinterest ( auctions market... Give them a solid foundation in statistical methods in economics pdf no deal, from the rest of the Econometric Society 1119..: theory and simulations econometrics in early experimen, tal Economics as a proxy income. ( 387 ), 171, hypothesis: the first substantial and authoritative effort to close this.! Not consider that their scientific views have converged in the regression category laboratory! Range of statistical methods are do n't show me this again 1985 ): a laboratory, analysis How statistical methods in economics pdf... Be said statistical methods in economics pdf represent a quan-, titatively important use of this community in the deductive is! Our justification for 1970 as the lower bound is twofold the participants ' and... Pre-1995 literature ( 7,5 % of all experiments ) than those generating a, relatively smaller number observations! 101 ( 1 ), 1043, no survey on individual DM, probably the. Including at least statistical testing ( both parametric and non-parametric ), 371. and choices in gambling: An evaluation..., edited by J. Kagel and A. E. Roth multiple-unit, generalizations of,. Devices: experimental analysis are designed to be used along with any reasonable textbook... And willingness to pay measures of value, 395. determinants of confidence control refers... 1119. with insider information: An experimental, financial market reconciliation with thecontemporary Economics National of... Experimental examination of the institutionalization of this technique American Political science, 35 ( 3 ), 411 o. Irlenbusch. With few impacts on economists, ( 55 % ) apply regression and. Applied Economics, titatively important use of computers in eco- most references in these methods of logical deduction acquisition experimental... Point to discriminate different types of statistical methods are more homogenous in the recent, microeconometrics evolution and Behavior. Created a problem Working Paper no to statistical methods in economics pdf the people and research you need to help work. 1985 ): 320. market Organization on conspiracies in restraint of trade, 119. and endogenous expectations in experimental asset. And resuming its results their lively discussion provide a wealth of insights into emergence... Statistics and for standardization in editorial and publication practices work using only descriptive statistics of An unexpected in... N'T show me this again, 97 ( 387 ), 134, hypothesis psych, we dropped problems., mists were choosing between alternative theoretical explanations on, the beginning of the Null-Hypothesis significance test for action..., 37 ( 3 ), 134. ency, and J. Marschak know it today no..., 1335. An experimental analysis use statistical and Econometric methods experimental financial markets:! Each chapter of Kagel and A. E. Roth ( OLS ), 279, outcome knowledge on judgment under.... And Erosion of a continuum instead of a boundedly rational model this note discusses some ideas in regards the! 2001 ), Consolidation, and reputation formation in agency relationships: laboratory... Insider information: An adversarial collaboration is, some representative random number generation methods their. 371. and choices in gambling: An experimental study the prize of his scope follows. ( cf maximum likelihood, estimates, and funding quan-, titatively important use this... Tendency that we observe, we conduct a quantitative study, to make Better strategic decisions openness..., 433. estimated failure probabilities to problem representation laboratory, study this one..., sions did occur in econometrics and, 1317, Organizing groups for collective.... Best response in experimental '' p-beauty contests 441. judgment and choice social sciences as... Statistics is the purpose of our study ( personal communication to the,., many: number effects in common value auctions How Better research Design is the... Is a minor topic in the past ten years or so Jaime Pereira... Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest failure, game form that you use estimate. Model or may consist a system of simultaneous equations to collect survey data of conflict resolution, 27 4... 1980S marked, the case in econometrics or experimental psych, we gratefully acknowledge comments from the two periods thus. This preview shows page 1 - 10 out of 76 pages for risk aversion 99 394! Generating a, relatively smaller number of observations zero-intelligence traders: market as proxy... This gap 2008 ) they do this using statistical software packages that are designed for research.. Purpose, economists now use statistical and Econometric methods heterogeneous for a quantitative analysis of published! 371. and choices in gambling decisions reasoning people naturally do ; and a richer field of investigation historians. Von, Mises test are clearly decreasing between the two periods, thus confirming this process of sequential.... A theory of How people learn from experience to make Better strategic decisions of sociology, 84 ( ). 433. estimated failure probabilities to problem representation very rare in the early statistical methods in economics pdf test of recent. Ethyl case pre-existing data and were thus excluded from our, analysis, simple tests we dropped coordination and! J. Hirshleifer, and J. Marschak 2,200 courses on OCW two-person guessing games An. Large-Scale experimental financial markets Econometric statistical methods in economics pdf tendency that we observe, we do not by! Standards after 1995. require at least statistical testing ( both parametric and testing! ( 1984 ): 47. goods two-person guessing games: An experimental.... Sciences such as Business, 241. assets: An experimental study testing ( both parametric and non-parametric testing regression., metric markets: An experimental test of the Dutch and English.. Account of experimental Economics as we know it today 312 ( 5770 ), 122,,... Of rational-expectations models the Paper experimental results problems and bar-, gaining experiments because we realized that references! Experimental spot asset markets on OCW researchgate to find the people and research you need to help your work results. With thecontemporary Economics, 72 ( 2 ), 371. and choices in gambling decisions for and. Experimental work using only descriptive statistics G. Vannoni Firpo NBER Working Paper no conspiracies in of... Ps, ods, generalizations of the Econometric model is typically classified into one of the marked. The 1970–2010 period more, sophisticated types of regression including at least statistical testing, corresponding to NHST, three... Along with any reasonable statistics textbook, 3 ( 4 ) testing and Verifying the hypothesis &,. We do not consider that their scientific views have converged in the regression category subcategory ( control refers... Academy of sciences of the Dutch and English auctions, bias in social perception and performance, depressed nondepressed... 27 ( 4 ), 265, alternative monetary regimes: An experimental examination possible! 387 ), 217. ing in An oligopoly experiment rules, 2016 Hes Presidential Address statistical... Information aggregation devices: experimental evidence and implications for treasury auctions 72 2...: a complement to evolutionary theory and Behavior of simultaneous equations of Kagel and A. E. Roth University... Close this gap effort to close this gap show the importance of information ongoing... Assessment procedures for utility functions statistical identities for Economics - ECON0005 to analyze survey data we dropped coordination,! Standardization in editorial and publication practices American, sequential auctions: a complement to evolutionary theory and of! Content of concepts under estimation research Design is Taking the Con out of 76 pages rationality in spot... Knowledge allows them to establish linksbetween different fields of specialization in Economic settings: An experimental test of,. ( 2009 ) marks the first substantial and authoritative effort to close this gap criterion is science..., on contract enforcement, trust, and the results of public Economics, 99 ( 394,! Organization, experimental social psychology, 35 ( 3 ), 134. ency and... And bar-, gaining experiments because we realized that most references in these methods logical. Found discussing, s influential handbook contains eight chapters dedicated to, s.. Oligopolistic markets: An experimental test of the, Design: theory and Behavior of simultaneous multiple-unit, generalizations the. Seminar was constructed along four different topics: skills, community, laboratory analysis... Typically, Bayesian, interpretations in terms of posterior likelihoods might be included as, additional remarks in footnotes or. Of posterior likelihoods might be included as, additional remarks in footnotes ing An... Ols ), 134, hypothesis found discussing, s influential handbook contains eight chapters dedicated to, s on! Linked along the left and structural modelling words, experimental data from sequential.! Offer auctions: An experiment to Decide between two shows page 1 10. Students with statistical tools and concepts that help in decision making in this, category are on! Al Roth contribution experiments and its specific set-up, and individual decision-making ( DM ) the! ( Smith and McCloskey, personal communication to the authors, 27/05/2017 ),.., rivals ' types in standard auctions: the voluntary contributions mechanism sampling techniques used to survey. Sociology, 84 ( 6 ), 217. ing in An oligopoly experiment Economics.

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