Physical geography focuses on natural features and processes, such as landforms, … This area is characterized by being part of a whole that contains it and is much wider. A more narrow focus on only Florida Bay may be doomed to failure. Since the 1980s, regional geography has seen a resurgence as a branch of geography … A region can be defined by natural or artificial features. REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY – SECTION 2 Page 35 15. A full theory of regional development will integrate theories of agglomeration economies with physical geography and with public economics. A research program to understand the role of human activities in altering biodiversity must involve studies at relatively large spatial and temporal scales. Communities are the sum total of metapopulations in a given habitat at a site. This marine biodiversity program would emphasize inclusion of biological and oceanographic processes at the largest relevant scales—recognizing the connectivity among sites within a geographic region—while acknowledging the critical importance of ecological processes and physical-biological coupling at smaller, site-specific scales. This may buffer them from extinction due to overexploitation, but it also renders their populations far more variable and less predictable and makes them more vulnerable to threshold effects. Search. Examples of coastal regional-scale systems include the region that contains all the coral reefs of the Hawaiian Islands, the region that contains all the rocky open coasts of the Pacific Northwest, or the region that contains all the estuaries and enclosed bays of the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain. Homes are an excellent source of examples. Once you start to study regional geography, you quickly find that global geography becomes important, too. Extend this line to measure upto 30 metres and show on it units of metre and 5 metre. Like land/sea breezes, these wind systems are created by the temperature contrasts that exist between the surfaces of land and ocean. Any understanding of present-. 1. The spatial extent of something. Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. Regional geography is still one of the main occupations of geographers, especially in teaching and in the field of geographical representations of the world, and over the last two or more decades, the most outstanding geographers have made several propositions for the conceptual revision of regional geography. igloos, A-frames, heated roofs, etc. Present-day oceanographic features that are persistent over relatively long time scales (days to months or longer) are likely to have had the most impact on defining, from a physical perspective, contemporary biological boundaries (but see below regarding longer time scales). They are characterized by their temperature and humidity, which is a result of their place of origin or source region. In the physical sciences, spatial scale or simply scale refers to the order of magnitude of extent or size of a land area or geographical distance studied or described.. For instance, in physics an object or phenomenon can be called microscopic if too small to be visible. Vernacular regions are subject to perception and often change based on the person defining them. Regional Geography Today . © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. Atlases can depict a specific area or cover the entire Earth. Extend this line to measure upto 30 metres and show on it units of metre and 5 metre. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Currents carry larvae of some species transoceanic distances, far from their parents (Scheltema, 1986). I guess you’re asking about levels of analysis. The relationship between patches, metapopulations, communities, sites, and regions using a benthic and a pelagic example. ... regional and global scale. Examples of coastal regional-scale systems include the region that contains all the coral reefs of the Hawaiian Islands, the region that contains all the rocky open coasts of the Pacific Northwest, or the region that contains all the estuaries and enclosed bays of the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain. In geography, the three types of regions are: formal, functional and vernacular. Regional introduction Page 36 16. The following sections illustrate geography's contributions at several scales: regional and local, national, and international. Since the 1980s, regional geography has seen a resurgence as a branch of geography … For example, the exchange of nutrients, food, and colonists between one site and another all depend on patterns of coastal and ocean currents that are largely independent of local events (e.g., see Box 5). These regions thus encompass all physical and biological processes that could affect the reefs, rocky shores, … Taking a local issue and making it regional, looking at worldwide a wealth of details about a particular place. If you live in a snowy climate the physical conditions limit your possible range of housing styles to those that will keep you warm and deal with snow on the roof in some way, but there's still a variety of possible ways to adapt the house to the snow, i.e. The scale generally used in architectural drawings, for example, is 1 / 4 inch to one foot, which means that 1 / 4 of an inch on the drawing equals one foot on the building being drawn. Regional Geography. In these systems, interindividual and interspecific interactions occur to a larger extent within patches, and processes such as dispersal, disturbance, and predation impose interpatch correlations (Sousa, 1985). The following sections illustrate geography's contributions at several scales: regional and local, national, and international. Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. 1. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? 1) are critical elements to the definition of a pelagic regional-scale system (Fig. Region 3: Peripheral European region (Mezzogiorno) Page 50 19. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. We call these pieces 'regions.' Throughout the book the critical role of taxonomy is emphasized. Examples of coastal regional-scale systems include the region that contains all the coral reefs of the Hawaiian Islands, the region that contains all the rocky open coasts of the Pacific Northwest, or the region that contains all the estuaries and enclosed bays of the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain. A more … Regional Scale Levels A “region” may be defined, for example, by a national border, a trans-border trade zone, or a biologically defined BIOME [glossary]. List the 3 types of Regions and give an example of each. Some of the unique attributes of marine ecosystems are listed below: Key References: Steele (1985); May (1988); Steele et al., (1989); Strathmann (1990); Cohen (1994); Knowlton (1993). In climatology, a micro-climate is a climate which might occur in a mountain, valley or near a lake shore. ! Populations of water birds, forage fish, and juvenile gamefish are significantly reduced in eastern Florida Bay where freshwater inflow from the Everglades has been reduced and hypersalinity results. Distant marine habitats can be linked by dispersing larvae. This means, for example (as explained below) that it is imprudent to study long-term prospects for biodiversity in the Chesapeake Bay independently of other Atlantic coastal plain estuaries, or to assume that the coral reefs of Florida are independent of other reef tracts in the greater Caribbean area (see Box 5). The space occupied by Luxembourg has distinc tive features; for example, most people live in the south of the country, whereas the north is … Monsoons are regional scale wind systems that predictably change direction with the passing of the seasons. Although this marine biodiversity initiative focuses on the larger within-regional-scale oceanographic and ecological processes that directly bear on the expression of local, site-specific biodiversity, awareness of the ocean-wide influences between regions remains important to an overall understanding of regional biodiversity. Also, currents associated with periodic El Niño-Southern Oscillations are known to transport warm water and propagules across the Pacific, causing population and community changes (Glynn, 1988). Rather, this initiative. Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. Regional geography becomes especially important when regional boundaries conflict with national boundaries, such as in the Southwest. Florida Bay (2,200 km2), and the adjacent Florida Keys, is the only tropical marine ecosystem in the continental United States, with a vast economic value for the state of Florida. The Local scale Is a concept that has several applications in different sciences. DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF MARINE ECOSYSTEMS. AREA: REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY. Geographers also use scale to describe the size of a region being studied. For example, Houston, Texas, is located on Buffalo Bayou, which flows into the Gulf of Mexico. Marine predators differ strikingly in their much higher reproductive output. The scale of a map is the ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground. The regions are artificial segments that allow scientists to compare areas of the world in detail. A resource or phenomenon may be studied at a range of scales. The collection of patches that interact or are otherwise connected constitute a "metapopulation" (Gilpin and Hanski, 1991). A 3 cm long line represents a length of 4.5 metres. Rather, there must be awareness of the selective filter a particular perspective imposes on observed dynamics and of how information is transferred across scales (Ricklefs, 1987, 1990; Underwood and Petraitis, 1993). Arenas for Decisions Geographers and geographic perspectives have found important application in decision making in both the private and the public sectors. In 1987, seagrasses began to die and this has affected over 18 percent of the Bay as of 1993. This marine biodiversity initiative is envisioned as a decadal-scale program. Informative to the scientist and accessible to the policymaker, Understanding Marine Biodiversity will be of specific interest to marine biologists, ecologists, oceanographers, and research administrators, and to government agencies responsible for utilizing, managing, and protecting the oceans. The concept of scale as used in human geography is a bit different than that used on a map. Biodiversity depends on processes operating at many different spatial, temporal, and organizational scales (S.A. Levin, 1992). ADVERTISEMENTS: In the concluding part of the 19th century, the French geographers like Vidal de Lablache called the areas of similar physical and cultural characteristics as pays. Thus, physical-oceanographic processes that occur on a variety of spatial scales (see Fig. Changes in climate and the flux of nutrients, plankton, or larval recruits all depend on regional oceanographic processes, often largely independent of local events (e.g., Butman, 1987; Roughgarden et al., 1988; Underwood and Petraitis, 1993). They are presented with a world map showing variation in rates of natural increase. View our suggested citation for this chapter. A region is an area of land that has common features. Scale is about size, eithe~ relative or absolute, and involves a fundamental set of issues in geography. In geography, we often focus on spatial scale. At larger—possibly the largest—scales, it is clear that distinct regional systems thousands of kilometers apart may have reciprocal influences on each other. Show the length of 22 metres on this line. Thus, an important factor influencing the abundance of adult lobster populations may be very distant oceanographic and biological processes—in an ecosystem not likely to be directly studied by Caribbean lobster ecologists. However, the domains of temporal and thematic scale are also important to geographers. Time scales associated with speciation may range from thousands to millions of years, depending on such factors as the mode of speciation and the ecology and life-history characteristics of the organisms involved. Flashcards, matching, concentration, and word search. Region 2: Core Irish region (South & East) Page 43 18. Thus, the scale implications of this regional geography are plain to see: Britain consists of a collection of physical units that together constitute the land of Britain. Whereas some of these changes could be considered as only "local" effects, it is important to view this ecosystem collapse in terms of broader changes in the Caribbean marine and terrestrial ecosystems. 32 views For example, the larvae of the Caribbean spiny lobster spend 9 or more months traversing the open-ocean pelagic ecosystems of the North Atlantic gyre (Farmer et al., 1989). are defined by relatively abrupt changes in the abundance of common species (Paine and S.A. Levin, 1981), or by the physical phenomena contributing to patch formation and maintenance (Fig. This marine biodiversity initiative sets a research agenda that represents a fundamental change in the approach to measuring and studying biodiversity in. The construction of the plain scale is explained below by a worked example. Consequently, much is known about mechanisms of interaction and the proximate causes of local dynamics, much less about how the sum total of species at a site indirectly affects individual. day patterns of biodiversity therefore must be embedded firmly in an historical perspective, underscoring the importance, for example, of knowing if a given species was introduced or is native to the environment in which it now occurs (Carlton, 1989; Valentine and Jablonski, 1993) and of retrospective analyses in general (discussed in Chapter 6). The open nature of marine systems (Box 4) dictates a regional-scale approach that involves studying multiple separate sites within an appropriately large geographic region. They can also be found if you zoom into a country at a regional, local and even city scale. Geographers explore a wide variety of spatial phenomena, but the discipline can roughly be divided into two branches: physical geography and human geography. Because algal blooms have increased, large areas of the Bay are now subjected to bloom conditions, and these have spread to the coral reefs of the Keys. The five fundamental objectives of this initiative are: The diversity of marine life is being affected dramatically by fishery operations, chemical pollution and eutrophication, alteration of physical habitat, exotic species invasion, and effects of other human activities. 3 BIODIVERSITY CHANGES DUE TO ANTHROPOGENIC EFFECTS: CRITICAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2 LINKING PATTERN TO PROCESS: A REGIONAL-SCALE APPROACH, 4 REGIONALLY DEFINED MODEL SYSTEMS: EXAMPLES OF HABITATS. Ultimately, a variety of criteria, based on all life-history stages of the organisms, the oceanographic processes relevant to these stages, and the critical environmental issues in the region, must be used in defining the maximum spatial and temporal scales of study (e.g., Box 5). Likewise, alterations to land runoff and freshwater systems can affect Bay waters. Such processes can be modeled as a metapopulation of sites or metacommunities (Gilpin and Hanski, 1991; D.S. This is the scale over which individual organisms interact with each other and with their immediate environment. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. When we describe places, we can discuss their absolute and relative location and their relationship and interaction with other places. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. (I B) Students are required to think through various scales of inquiry. 1). There are also nagging questions about minimum population sizes and critical areas for survival of species in the sea (e.g., Nee and May, 1992). Go on Google Maps and zoom all the way out. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms. Geography (from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. If you live in a snowy climate the physical conditions limit your possible range of housing styles to those that will keep you warm and deal with snow on the roof in some way, but there's still a variety of possible ways to adapt the house to the snow, i.e. This consideration defines the relevant regional-scale of study for a given community or habitat. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? 1. A "region" comprises all the sites within a biogeographic province whose limits are defined by the relative homogeneity of the biota, as well as by unifying geographic features and oceanographic processes (Fig. to understand the patterns, processes, and consequences of changing marine biological diversity by focusing on critical environmental issues and their threshold effects, and to address these effects at spatial scales from local to regional and at appropriate temporal scales; to improve the linkages between the marine ecological and oceanographic sciences by increasing understanding of the connectivity between local, smaller-scale biodiversity patterns and processes, and regional, larger-scale oceanographic patterns and processes that may directly impact local phenomena; to strengthen and expand the field of marine taxonomy through training, the development of new methodologies, and enhanced information dissemination, and to raise the standard of taxonomic competence in all marine ecological research; to facilitate and encourage the incorporation of (1) new technological advances in sampling and sensing instrumentation, experimental techniques, and molecular genetic methods, (2) predictive models for hypothesis development, testing, and extrapolation, and (3) historical perspectives (geological, paleontological, archeological, and historical records of early explorations) in investigations of the patterns, processes, and consequences of marine biodiversity; and. The most relevant scales for studying particular species or dynamical interactions among species will not be the same as for others, and hence there is no single correct set of scales for viewing a system. 4! Often these are called transition zones which represent the start and end of a specific region and can be large or small. It is important to note that these inequalities don't just appear at a global scale, but can be seen at a national scale within countries. Local Health Scale . Thus, for example, time scales associated with various physical oceanographic processes define advection length scales for planktonic larval transport, and the frequency and duration of resuspension events for benthic resting stages. Key References: Robblee et al., (1991); Porter and Meier (1992); Boesch et al., (1993); Ogden et al., (1994). Box 5: Understanding the origins of profound biological changes at one site will require understanding similar or related changes at the regional level. Language, government, or religion can define a region, as can forests, wildlife, or climate. For the regional scale, the EUROS model was used to study the urban and regional-scale interactions that are important in simulating concentrations of ozone, PM 2.5, and PM 10. Page 37 17. The nexus between the local units and the nation-state is to be found in the presentation of the sovereign territory as a coterie of countrysides. The construction of the plain scale is explained below by a worked example. Region 3: Peripheral European region (Mezzogiorno) Page 50 19. Physical processes operating over a wide range of time and space scales may affect metapopulation dynamics (Fig. Functional regions are typically areas where a specific service is provided, such as areas of a country that a gas supplier services. Because of the spread of modern technology, humans today can make changes in the natural environment at a much faster rate and much grander scale than at any other time in human history. Check out the examples below to find out more. These regions thus encompass all physical and biological processes that could affect the reefs, rocky shores, or estuaries and bays contained within them. What are the 2 meaning of scale in geography? Learning Goal 2: Students will learn the regional geography of the world, particularly from the perspective of how human, physical and environmental components of the world interact. Learning Goal 2: Students will learn the regional geography of the world, particularly from the perspective of how human, physical and environmental components of the world interact. Given this time frame and physical considerations, important life-history features of the organisms include, for example, generation time, larval type (direct development or planktonic), dispersal period in the plankton (for pelagic larvae or spores of benthic organisms), and resting stage duration (for dormant benthic stages of planktonic organisms). Also, regional geography also studies the specific boundaries between places. There are fundamentally different levels of environmental impact in different marine systems: some are now highly impacted (such as most coastal and coral-reef systems), whereas for others there is a grave possibility of future impact (such as open-ocean and deep-sea systems through, for example, human alterations to the global climate) suggesting the advisability of "anticipatory" research. This initiative does not recommend studying all processes at all scales within a selected geographic region. map that shows only a small portion of Earth’s surface, such as a neighborhood, can provide. Moreover, spatial scales tend to increase as time scales increase. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Regional geography does often seek explanation of local idiosyncrasies (and while regional observations may be taken as examples of broader phenomena, this has thus become systematic geography). ... for example, scale 1:50 implies that the drawing is drawn 50 times smaller than the real one. The Dictionary of Human Geography points out that recently the progress of ideas on regional synthesis have received a serious setback due to persisting dilemmas in geography. Understanding Marine Biodiversity outlines the current state of our knowledge, and propose research agenda on marine biological diversity. igloos, A-frames, heated roofs, etc. Show the length of 22 metres on this line. None of these issues can be addressed at a local scale. Instead, they break the world up into smaller pieces that are more efficient to study. Such systems are "open," and connections between benthic and planktonic life-history stages assume great significance, unlike most terrestrial systems. The purposes of this proposed initiative are thus to define a suite of cross-system basic research questions that transcend the typical approach to studying the patterns, processes, and consequences of marine biological diversity. ADVERTISEMENTS: Regional Concept of Geography: Attributes, Classification of Regional and Regionalism! Effective solutions will require an expanded understanding of the patterns and processes that control the diversity of life in the sea. species, and almost nothing about interactions among communities at different sites (e.g., S.A. Levin, 1992). In general, it can be defined as a level associated with a very specific, generally geographic, or at least physically delimitable area. Formal regions consist of geographic regions, cultural regions, governmental regions and economic regions. Arenas for Decisions Geographers and geographic perspectives have found important application in decision making in both the private and the public sectors. to use the new understanding of the patterns, processes, and consequences of marine biodiversity derived from this regional-scale research approach to improve predictions of the impacts of human activities on the marine environment. Scale primarily concerns space in geography, and this article will focus on spatial scale. 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At OpenBook, NAP.edu 's online reading room since 1999 map showing variation in rates of natural increase biological suggest.